Dora Rašan – University of Rijeka, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Primorska 42, Opatija, Croatia
Kristina Pilko – University of Rijeka, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Primorska 42, Opatija, Croatia
Keywords: Experience economy;
Abstract: In an examination of the tourist’s gastronomic experience, scien- tific experts approach it in different ways, depending on the research para- digm to which they belong. In scientific literature, there are paradigms such as positivism, constructivism, criticism, postmodernism, and transmodern- ism. The purpose of this study was to analyze 55 scientific articles on the tourist’s gastronomic experience according to key terms (ontology, epistemology, and methodology) and thus determine their affiliation to the appropriate paradigm. The empirical research results indicate that there are no studies of postmodernism and transmodernism, but there are studies of positivist (70.91%), critical (18.18%), and constructivist (10.91%) research views. Therefore, in future research, scientists should direct their gaze pre- cisely in the direction of these paradigms. Further research findings indicate that the largest number of analyzed studies published in the last three years is in Asia (40%), North America (34.55%), and Europe (18.18%) where the au- thors predominantly apply a quantitative research approach (69.09%). The contribution of this research is reflected in the improved theoretical knowledge of the researched issues as well as the application of the same in determining the papers with regard to the type of paradigm to which the authors of selected papers belong. Also, this study is the first in conducting a paradigmatic analysis of gastronomic tourism studies.
8th International Scientific ERAZ Conference – ERAZ 2022 – Selected Papers: KNOWLEDGE BASED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Online-Virtual (Prague, Czech Republic), May 26, 2022
ERAZ Selected Papers published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans – Belgrade, Serbia
ERAZ conference partners: Faculty of Economics and Business, Mediterranean University, Montenegro; University of National and World Economy – Sofia, Bulgaria; Faculty of Commercial and Business Studies – Celje, Slovenia; AMBIS University, Prague – Czech Republic; Faculty of Applied Management, Economics and Finance – Belgrade, Serbia
ERAZ Conference 2022 Selected Papers: ISBN 978-86-80194-61-5, ISSN 2683-5568, DOI: https://doi.org/10.31410/ERAZ.S.P.2022
Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission.
Rašan, D., & Pilko, K. (2022). Typology of Social Paradigm: Literature Review of Tourist’s Gastronomic Experience. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), ERAZ Conference – Knowlegde Based Sustainable Development: Vol 8. Selected Papers (pp. 107-119). Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans. https://doi.org/10.31410/ERAZ.S.P.2022.107
Asghar, J. (2013). Critical paradigm: A preamble for novice researchers. Life Science Journal, 10(4), 3121–3127.
Ateljević, I. (2013). Visions of Transmodernity: A New Renaissance of our Human History? Integral Review, 9(2), 200-220.
Bačić, A. (2013). Konstitucionalizam, historizam i postmodernizam. Zbornik radova Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu, 50 (1), 1-15.
Bekar, A. (2017). The effects of aesthetic value in food and beverage businesses on the aesthetic experiences and revisit intentions of customers. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 1(54), 373–388. https://doi.org/10.9761/JASSS6915
Björk, P., & Kauppinen-Räisänen, H. (2015). Contemporary insights to the dynamic pre-trip information sourcing behaviour. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 15(1), 39–53. https://doi. org/10.1177/1467358414553871
Campbell, J. M., & DiPietro, R. B. (2014). Sign of the times: Testing consumer response to local food signage within a casual dining restaurant. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(5), 812–823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.06.010
Canny, I. (2014). Measuring the Mediating Role of Dining Experience Attributes on Customer Satisfaction and Its Impact on Behavioral Intentions of Casual Dining Restaurant in Jakarta. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 5(1), 25-43. https:// doi.org/10.7763/IJIMT.2014.V5.480
Cao, Y., Li, X. (Robert), DiPietro, R., & So, K. K. F. (2019). The creation of memorable dining experiences: formative index construction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 82, 308–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.10.010
Chen, L.-H., Wang, M.-J. S., & Morrison, A. M. (2021). Extending the memorable tourism experience model: a study of coffee tourism in Vietnam. British Food Journal, 123(6), 2235– 2257. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-08-2020-0748
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2017). Research Methods in Education. Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315456539
Cojocaru, D., & Sandu, A. (2011). (BIO)ethical and social reconstructions in transmodernity. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 10(30), 258–276.
Correia, A., Kim, S. (Sam), & Kozak, M. (2020). Gastronomy experiential traits and their effects on intentions for recommendation: A fuzzy set approach. International Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3), 351–363. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2340
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Research. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Crotts, J. C., & Magnini, V. P. (2011). The customer delight construct. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 719–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2010.03.004
DeCarlo, M. (2018). Scientific Inquiry in Social Work. Open Social Work Education. https://scientificinquiryinsocialwork.pressbooks.com/
Deshpande, R. (1983). “Paradigms Lost”: On Theory and Method in Research in Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 47(4), 101-110. https://doi.org/10.2307/1251403
Ding, D., & Lee, H. M. (2017). A measurement scale for food festival visitor experience. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 17(3), 180-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/15980634.20 17.1349069
Ellis, C., & Bochner, A. (2000). Autoethnography, Personal Narrative, Reflexivity: Researcher as Subject. Handbook of Qualitative Research, 28, 32-45.
Ghasarian, C., Best, S., & Kellner, D. (1996). Postmodern Theory. Critical Interrogations. Revue Française de Sociologie, 37(1), 151. https://doi.org/10.2307/3321956
Githiri, M. N. (2016). Influence of Physical Environment on Customer Satisfaction and Return Intention in Kenyan Rated Restaurants. Asian Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(1), 11- 18. https://doi.org/10.20849/ajsss.v2i1.82
Gracia, E., Bakker, A. B., & Grau, R. M. (2011). Positive Emotions: the connection between customer quality evaluations and loyalty. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(4), 458–465. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965510395379
Guba, E. G. (1990). The alternative paradigm dialog, in E. Guba (ed.), The Paradigm Dialog, (pp. 17–30). Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Ha, J., & Jang, S. (Shawn). (2012). The effects of dining atmospherics on behavioral intentions through quality perception. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(3), 204–215. https:// doi.org/10.1108/08876041211224004
Ha, J., & (Shawn) Jang, S. (2010). Perceived values, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: The role of familiarity in Korean restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 2–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.03.009
Hanks, L., & Line, N. D. (2018). The restaurant social servicescape: Establishing a nomological framework. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 74, 13–21. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.01.022
Healy, M., & Perry, C. (2000). Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(3),118 – 126. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750010333861
Horng, J.-S., Chou, S.-F., Liu, C.-H., & Tsai, C.-Y. (2013). Creativity, aesthetics and eco-friendliness: A physical dining environment design synthetic assessment model of innovative restaurants. Tourism Management, 36, 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.002
Horng, J.-S., & Hsu, H. (2020). A holistic aesthetic experience model: Creating a harmonious dining environment to increase customers’ perceived pleasure. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45, 520–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.10.006
Horng, J.-S., & Hsu, H. (2021). Esthetic Dining Experience: The relations among aesthetic stimulation, pleasantness, memorable experience, and behavioral intentions. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 30(4), 419–437. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2021.1859425
Hussein, A. S. (2018). Revisiting the importance of casual dining experience quality: an empirical study. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 10(3), 233–252. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQSS-04-2017-0041
Hyun, S. S., & Han, H. (2012). A model of a patron’s innovativeness formation toward a chain restaurant brand. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 175–199.
Josselson, R. (2007). The ethical attitude in narrative research. In Clandinin, D.J. (2007) Handbook of Narrative Inquiry (pp. 537-566). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications.
Kala, D. (2020). Dimensions of a memorable food and restaurant experience in mountainous destinations: an interpretive structural modeling approach. Enlightening tourism. A pathmaking journal, 10(2), 206. https://doi.org/10.33776/et.v10i2.5111
Kiatkawsin, K., & Han, H. (2019). What drives customers’ willingness to pay price premiums for luxury gastronomic experiences at Michelin-starred restaurants? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 82, 209–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.04.024
Kim, W. G., & Moon, Y. J. (2009). Customers’ cognitive, emotional, and actionable response to the servicescape: A test of the moderating effect of the restaurant type. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(1), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.06.010
Kroeze, J.H. (2012). Interpretivism in IS – a postmodernist (or postpositivist?) knowledge theory. Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2012 Proceedings), Seattle, Washington, USA (pp. 9-11), 2012, Paper 7, ISBN 978-0- 615-66346- 3. Available: http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2012/proceedings/PerspectivesIS/7
Lee, C. J., Wang, Y. C., & Cai, D. C. (2015). Physical Factors to Evaluate the Servicescape of Theme Restaurants. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 14(1), 97– 104. https://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.14.97
Lee, L., Lee, M. J., & Dewald, B. (2016). Measuring the customers’ perception of tangible service quality in the restaurant industry: An emphasis on the upscale dining segment. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 19(1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.201 6.1129216
Lee, Y. J. (2015). Creating memorable experiences in a reuse heritage site. Annals of Tourism Research, 55, 155-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2015.09.009
Liao, W.-L., & Fang, C.-Y. (2019). Applying an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior for Sustaining a Landscape Restaurant. Sustainability, 11(18), 5100. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185100
Liu, P., & Tse, E. C.-Y. (2018). Exploring factors on customers’ restaurant choice: an analysis of restaurant attributes. British Food Journal, 120(10), 2289–2303. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-10-2017-0561
Liu, Y., & Jang, S. (Shawn). (2009). The effects of dining atmospherics: An extended Mehrabian–Russell model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(4), 494–503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.01.002
Lougen, C. (2009). Sources: The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1),112-123. https://doi.org/10.5860/rusq.49n1.101
Mahalingam, S., Jain, B., & Sahay, M. (2016). Role of physical environment (dinescape factors) influencing customers’ revisiting intention to restaurants. 2016 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), 1069–1072. https:// doi.org/10.1109/ICACCI.2016.7732186
Marković, S., Dorčić, J., Rašan, D., Bucić, B., & Blažić, M. (2021a). Aesthetic guest experience in restaurant: a state-of-the-art review. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), Economics & Management: How to Cope with Disrupted Times – Selected Papers. Paper presented at 5th International Scientific Conference EMAN 2021, Ljubljana, Slovenia (hybrid), March 18, 2021 (pp. 135 – 148). Belgrade: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans. https://doi.org/10.31410/ EMAN.S.P.2021.135
Marković, S., Dorčić, J., Rašan, D., Bucić, B., & Blažić, M. (2021b). Content analysis of Michelin restaurants online reviews in Croatia. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), Economics & Management: How to Cope with Disrupted Times. Paper presented at 5th International Scientific Conference EMAN 2021, Ljubljana, Slovenia (hybrid), March 18, 2021 (pp. 381 – 392). Belgrade: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans. https://doi.org/10.31410/EMAN.2021.381
Marković, S., Dorčić, J., Rašan, D., Bucić, B., & Blažić, M. (2021c). The Importance of Aesthetic Experience in Fine Dining Restaurants. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), Knowledge based sustainable development – Selected Papers. Paper presented at 7th International Scientific Conference ERAZ 2021, Prague – Czech Republic (hybrid – online, virtually and in person), May 27, 2021 (pp. 147 – 154). Belgrade: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans. https://doi.org/10.31410/ERAZ.S.P.2021.147
Moon, S., Bonn, M. A., & Cho, M. (2020). How can the solo dining experience be enhanced? Focusing on perceived territoriality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 88, 102506, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102506
Namkung, Y., & Jang, S. C. (Shawn). (2010). Effects of perceived service fairness on emotions, and behavioral intentions in restaurants. European Journal of Marketing, 44(9/10), 1233– 1259. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090561011062826
Ouyang, Y., Behnke, C., Almanza, B., & Ghiselli, R. (2018). The Influence of Food Aromas on Restaurant Consumer Emotions, Perceptions, and Purchases. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 27(4), 405–423. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2017.1374225
Paakki, M., Aaltojärvi, I., Sandell, M., & Hopia, A. (2019). The importance of the visual aesthetics of colours in food at a workday lunch. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 16, 100131, 1 – 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2018.12.001
Park, E., Kwon, J., Chae, B. (Kevin), & Kim, S.-B. (2021). What Are the Salient and Memorable Green-Restaurant Attributes? Capturing Customer Perceptions from User-Generated Content. SAGE Open, 11(3), 215824402110315, 1 – 13. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211031546
Ponterotto, J. G. (2005). Qualitative research in counseling psychology: A primer on research paradigms and philosophy of science. In Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(2), 126.-136. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.206
Pritchard, A., Morgan, N., & Ateljevic, I. (2011). Hopeful tourism. A New Transformative Perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 941–963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.01.004
Richardson, L., & St Pierre, E. (2000). A method of inquiry. Handbook of qualitative research, 923-948.
Richardson, S., Lefrid, M., Jahani, S., Munyon, M. D., & Rasoolimanesh, S. M. (2019). Effect of dining experience on future intention in quick service restaurants. British Food Journal, 121(11), 2620–2636. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-09-2018-0617
Ryu, K., Han, H., & Kim, T.-H. (2008). The relationships among overall quick-casual restaurant image, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 459–469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.11.001
Ryu, K., Lee, H., & Gon Kim, W. (2012). The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200–223. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111211206141
Ryu, K., & Shawn Jang, S. (2008). DINESCAPE: A scale for customers’ perception of dining environments. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 11(1), 2-22. https://doi. org/10.1080/15378020801926551
Sarantakos, S. (2005). Social Research. (3rd ed.). In Macmillan Education.
Scotland, J. (2012). Exploring the philosophical underpinnings of research: Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. English Language Teaching, 5(9), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n9p9
Sipe, L. J., & Testa, M. R. (2018). From Satisfied to Memorable: An Empirical Study of Service and Experience Dimensions on Guest Outcomes in the Hospitality Industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 27(2), 178–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2017.13 06820
Sthapit, E. (2017). Exploring tourists’ memorable food experiences: a study of visitors to Santa’s official hometown. Anatolia, 28(3), 404–421. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2017.1328607
Sthapit, E., Coudounaris, D. N., & Björk, P. (2019). Extending the memorable tourism experience construct: an investigation of memories of local food experiences. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 19(4–5), 333–353. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2019.1689530
Stone, M. J., Soulard, J., Migacz, S., & Wolf, E. (2018). Elements of Memorable Food, Drink, and Culinary Tourism Experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 57(8), 1121–1132. https://doi. org/10.1177/0047287517729758
Sulaiman, S., & Haron, M. S. (2013). Foodscape and Customer’s Future Behavioral Intentions in Casual Dining Restaurant. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 94–97. https:// doi.org/10.7763/JOEBM.2013.V1.22
Sunghyup Sean Hyun. (2010). Predictors of Relationship Quality and Loyalty in the Chain Restaurant Industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(2), 251–267. https://doi. org/10.1177/1938965510363264
Tang, K. M., & Bougoure, U. (2011). Service quality: an investigation into Malaysia customers using DINESERV. Journal of Services Marketing, 12(6), 426–440.
Taylor, P. C., & Medina, M. (2011). Educational Research Paradigms: From Positivism to Pluralism. College Research Journal, 1(1), 1-16.
Taylor, P., & Settlemaier, E. (2003). Critical autobiographical research for science educators. Critical autobiographical research for science educators. Critical autobiographical research for science educators, 27(4), 233.-244. https://doi.org/10.14935/jssej.27.233
Tkalac Verčić, A., Sinčić Čorić, D. & Pološki Vokić, N. (2010). Priručnik za metodologiju istraživačkog rada: Kako osmisliti, provesti i opisati znanstveno i stručno istraživanje. M.E.P.d.o.o.
Tsaur, S.-H., & Lo, P.-C. (2020). Measuring memorable dining experiences and related emotions in fine dining restaurants. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 29(8), 887–910. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2020.1748157
Tsaur, S.-H., Luoh, H.-F., & Syue, S.-S. (2015). Positive emotions and behavioral intentions of customers in full-service restaurants: Does aesthetic labor matter? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51, 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.08.015
Tsoukas, H. (1989). The Validity of Idiographic Research Explanations. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 165 -181. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1989.4308386
Wardono, P., Hibino, H., & Koyama, S. (2012). Effects of Interior Colors, Lighting and Decors on Perceived Sociability, Emotion and Behavior Related to Social Dining. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 38, 362–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.358
Watson, N. (2012). Postmodernism and lifestyles. The Routledge Companion to Postmodernism, Third Edition (pp. 62–72). Taylor and Francis.
Wen, H., Leung, X., & Pongtornphurt, Y. (2020). Exploring the impact of background music on customers’ perceptions of ethnic restaurants: The moderating role of dining companions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 43, 71–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jhtm.2020.02.007
Wood, E. M. (1997). Modernity, postmodernity or capitalism? Review of International Political Economy, 4(3), 539–560. https://doi.org/10.1080/096922997347742
Wu, C. H.-J., & Liang, R.-D. (2009). Effect of experiential value on customer satisfaction with service encounters in luxury-hotel restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(4), 586–593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.03.008
Wu, H. C., & Mohi, Z. (2015). Assessment of Service Quality in the Fast-Food Restaurant. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 18(4), 358-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2015.1068673
Yaris, A. (2019). Developing and validating a gastronomy experience scale. In O. Emir (Ed.), City Tourism. Paper presented at 4th International Tourism Congress 2019, October 16-19 (pp. 142-151). Eskişehir: Anadolu University Press.
Yoon, B., & Chung, Y. (2018). Consumer Attitude and Visit Intention toward Food-Trucks: Targeting Millennials. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 21(2), 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2017.1368807
Zhang, T., Chen, J., & Hu, B. (2019). Authenticity, Quality, and Loyalty: Local Food and Sustainable Tourism Experience. Sustainability, 11(12), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123437