Barbara Galbusera – ASST Lecco, Via Eremo 9/11, Lecco, Italy



Keywords:                         Schizophrenia;


Abstract: In the last two years, the COVID-19 pandemic has become part of people’s lives, including those diagnosed with schizophrenia. Many have also exacerbated negative symptoms of the disease such as anxiety, in­creased hallucinations, and depressive symptoms. To overcome the illness, the wishes of the patients were investigated. Subsequently, starting from the personalism philosophy point of view, for a little group of the Day Care Service, a program (that has integrated pedagogical interventions, educa­tional groups, psycho-educational interventions, social skills training and telephone support) has been created to decrease the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and improve the psychophysical well-being of each patient. This research shows that it is possible to introduce a clinical-pedagogy per­spective for the care of schizophrenia patients and to mitigate the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

8th International Scientific ERAZ Conference – ERAZ 2022 – Conference Proceedings: KNOWLEDGE BASED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Online-Virtual (Prague, Czech Republic), May 26, 2022

ERAZ Conference Proceedings published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans – Belgrade, Serbia

ERAZ conference partners: Faculty of Economics and Business, Mediterranean University, Montenegro; University of National and World Economy – Sofia, Bulgaria; Faculty of Commercial and Business Studies – Celje, Slovenia; AMBIS University, Prague – Czech Republic; Faculty of Applied Management, Economics and Finance – Belgrade, Serbia

ERAZ Conference 2022 Conference Proceedings: ISBN 978-86-80194-60-8, ISSN 2683-5568, DOI:

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission. 

Sugested citation

Galbusera, B. (2022). Person with Schizophrenia and Negative Symptoms in COVID-19 Era: A New Evolution for Treatments and Economy. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), ERAZ Conference – Knowlegde Based Sustainable Development: Vol 8. Conference Proceedings (pp. 325-331). Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans.


A.A.V.V. (1981). Atti del convegno internazionale: modalità autistiche ed altri problemi dello svi­luppo affettivo del bambino: indicazioni operative sul coordinamento clinico-pedagogico, Grado (Gorizia), 22,23,24 October 1981, Trieste: Cluet.

Agazzi, A. (1965). Sviluppo ed esigenze educative del bambino in età prescolare: bambino normale e bambini irregolari e disadattati, in Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione: Centro Didattico Nazi­onale per la Scuola Materna, Personalità e sviluppo sociale del bambino disadattato in età pres­colare: atti dell’incontro di studio, Brescia, 14-19 giugno 1964, Centro Didattico Nazionale per la Scuola Materna, Brescia, pp. 7-42.

Anglin, D.M., Galea, S., Buchman, P., (2020). Going upstream to advance psychosis prevention and improve public health. JAMA Psychiatry 

Aschbrenner, K.A., Naslund, J.A., Grinley T., Bienvenida J.C., Bartels. S.J., Brunette, M. (2018). A survey of online and mobile technology use at peer support agencies. Psychiatry Q. 4 (1-0).

Basaglia, F. (2000). Conferenze brasiliane, Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

Basaglia, F. (2014). L’utopia della realtà, Milano: Fabbri Publishing.

Basaglia, F. (Ed.) (1968). L’istituzione negata, Torino: Einaudi.

Bertagna, G. (2006). Pedagogia dell’«uomo» e pedagogia della «persona umana»: il senso di una differenza, in G. Bertagna, (Ed.), Scienze della persona: perché?, pp. 17-74, Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.

Bertagna, G., (2015). L’esperienza umana e educativa tra scientiae e pedagogia. Riflessioni epistemo­logiche, in D. Generali, (Ed.), Le radici della razionalità critica: saperi, pratiche, teleologie. Stu­di offerti a Fabio Minazzi, volume II, pp. 827-854, Milano: Mimesis.

Brooks, S.K., Webster R.K., Smith L.E. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet, 395:912-920.

Brown, E., Gray R., Lo Monaco, S., O’Donoghue B., Nelson B., Thompson A., Francey S., McGorry P., (2020). The potential impact of COVID-19 on psychosis: A rapid review of contemporary ep­idemic and pandemic research. Schizoprenia Research, 222:79-87.

Cancrini, L. (1974). Bambini “diversi” a scuola, Torino: Boringhieri.

Center for Diseas Control, Rothstein, M.A., Elster, N.R., Majumder, M.A., Palmer, L.I., Stone, T.H., Hoffma, R.E. (2003). Quarantine and Isolation: Lessons Learned From SARS. University of Louisville School of Medicine, Institute for Bioethics, Health…

De Sanctis, S. (1924). Neuropsichiatria Infantile, Roma: SAI Industrie Grafiche.

De Sanctis, S. (1963). La neuropsichiatria infantile, in «Infanzia Anormale», 4, pp. 62-79.

Duran, L., Zhu, G. (2020). Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidem­ic. Lancet, 7:300-302.

Fortuna, K., Barr, P., Goldstein, C., Walker, R., Brewer, L., Zagaria, A., Bartels, S. (2019). Application of community-engaged research to inform the development and implication of a peer-delivered mobile health intervention for adults with serious mental illness. Journal of Participatory Med­icine, 11 (1), e12380.

Frith, J., Cotter, J., Torous, J., Bucci, S., Firth, J.A., Yung, A.R. (2015). Mobile-phone ownership and endorsement of “MHealth” among people with psychosis: a meta-analysis of cross-selectional studies. Schizophr. Bull. 42(2), 448-455.

Fusar-Poli, P., Papanastasiou, E., Stahl, D., et al. (2015). Treatments of negative symptoms in schizo­phrenia: meta-analysis of 168 randomized placebo-controlled trials. Schizophr Bull, 41:892-899.

Fusar-Poli, P., Tantardini, M., De Simone, S., Ramella-Cravaro, V., Oliver, D., Kingdom, J., Kotlic­ka-Antczak, M., Valmaggia, L., Lee, J., Millan, M. (2017). Deconstructing vulnerability for psy­chosis: meta-analysis of environmental risk factors for psychosis in subjects at ultra high-risk. European Psychiatry, 40: 60-75.

Galbusera, B. (2018). Tourism and schizophrenia: An Italian case study. In V. Bevanda & S. Štetić (Eds.), 3rd International Thematic Monograph: Modern Management Tools and Economy of Tourism Sector in Present Era (pp. 441-448). Belgrade: Association of Economists and Manag­ers of the Balkans with Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Ohrid, North Macedonia. 

Galbusera, B. (2020). Pedagogia e autismo: per una formazione degli operatori alla didattica scolas­tica, Bergamo: Università degli Studi di Bergamo.

Gardner, P.J., Moallef, P. (2015). Psychological impact on SARS survivors: critical review of the Eng­lish language literature, Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 56 (1), 123.

Gohar, S.M., Hamdi E, El Ray, L.A., Horan, W.P., Green, M.F. (2013). Adapting and evaluating a so­cial cognitive remediation program for schizophrenia in Arabic. Schizophr Res, 148:12-17.

Guimond, S., Keshavan, M.S., Torous J.B. (2019). Towards remote digital phenotyping of cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 208, 36-38.

Horan W.P. Kern R.S, Shokat-Fadai K., Sergi M.J., Wynn J.K., Green M.F. (2009). Social cognitive skills training in schizophrenia: an initial efficacy study of stabilized outpatients. Schizophr Res, 107: 47-54.

Kay, S.R., Fiszbein A., Opler L.A. (1987). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull, 13:261-276.

Kępińska, A.P., Iyegbe, C.O., Vernon, A.C., Yolken, R., Murray, R.M., Pollak, T.A. (2020). Schizo­phrenia and influenza at the centenary of the 1918-1919 Spanish Influenza pandemic: mecha­nisms of psychosis risk. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11 (72).

Kozloff, N., Mulsant, B.H., Stergiopoulos, V., Voinesko, A.N., (2020). The COVID-19 Global Pan­demic: implications for People with Schizophrenia and Related Disorders. Schizophrenia Bul­letin, 46 (4): 752-757.

Medea, E. (1963), Sante De Sanctis, in «Infanzia anormale», 4, pp. 1-8, p. 4.

Mounier, M. (1948). Che cos’è il personalismo, [1975], tr. it., Torino: Einaudi.

Mounier, M. (1964). Il personalismo, [1964], tr. it., Roma: a.v.e.

Patterson, T.L., Mausbach, B.T., Mckibbin, C., Goldman, S., Bucardo, J., Jeste, D.V. (2006). Function­al adaptation skills training (FAST): a randomized trial of a psychosocial intervention for mid­dle-aged and older patients with chronic psychotic disorders. Schizophr. Res, 86: 291-299.

Rubin, G.J., Wessely S. (2020). The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ, 368: m313.

Turner, D.T., McGlanaghy, E., Cuijpers P., van der Gaag, M., Karyotaki E., MacBeth A. (2017). A Me­ta-Analysis of Social Skills Training and Related Interventions for Psychosis. Schizoph. Bull, 44 (3): 475-491.

Velthorst, E., Koeter, M., van der Gaag, M. et al. (2015). Adapted cognitive-behavioural therapy re­quired for targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychol Med, 45: 453-456.

Wallace, C.J., Nelson, C.J., Liberman, R.P. et al. (1980). A review and critique of social skills training with schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Bull, 6:42-63.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, Z. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general pop­ulation in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 17.

Xiang, Y.T, Weng Y.Z., Li W.Y., et al. (2007). Efficacy of the Community Re-Entry Module for patients with schizophrenia in Beijing, China outcome at 2-years follow-up. Br. J. Psychiatry, 190: 49-56.