Sanja Tišma – Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Lj. F. Vukotinovića 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Andrea Ruk – Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Lj. F. Vukotinovića 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Dragana Markanović – Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Lj. F. Vukotinovića 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Iva Tolić – Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Lj. F. Vukotinovića 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia




Keywords:                           Digital transformation;
VET providers;
Knowledge and skills


Abstract: The paper presents the results of the analysis of the readiness of small and medium enterprises, VET providers, high education institutions and consultancy organizations towards digital and bionic transformation and ac­quisition of a “bionic status”. The purpose of the paper is to find out which key skills and knowledge are needed for employees in order to be ready for digital transformation. SMEs that were a part of the survey operate in different eco­nomic sectors in various countries of the European Union (Spain, Slovenia, Po­land, Croatia, Ukraine, Austria, Italy, Germany, Macedonia, Switzerland, Bel­gium, and Hungary). Other organisations such as public bodies, non-govern­mental organisations (NGOs), universities and technological centres also par­ticipated in the survey on digital competences. Key conclusions of the analy­sis indicate that almost all participants are familiar with the need for digital transformation, but that knowledge about 4.0 technologies is still lacking. The most significant knowledge is in robotics, 3D printing and Cloud Services, big data, and IoT. Blockchain and artificial intelligence are considered less impor­tant for digital transformation. However, a strong need for further education and training in all of these areas was expressed.

8th International Scientific ERAZ Conference – ERAZ 2022 – Conference Proceedings: KNOWLEDGE BASED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Online-Virtual (Prague, Czech Republic), May 26, 2022

ERAZ Conference Proceedings published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans – Belgrade, Serbia

ERAZ conference partners: Faculty of Economics and Business, Mediterranean University, Montenegro; University of National and World Economy – Sofia, Bulgaria; Faculty of Commercial and Business Studies – Celje, Slovenia; AMBIS University, Prague – Czech Republic; Faculty of Applied Management, Economics and Finance – Belgrade, Serbia

ERAZ Conference 2022 Conference Proceedings: ISBN 978-86-80194-60-8, ISSN 2683-5568, DOI:

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission. 

Sugested citation

Tišma, S., Ruk, A., Markanović, D., & Tolić, I. (2022). SMEs Digital Transformation – Are We Ready?. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), ERAZ Conference – Knowlegde Based Sustainable Development: Vol 8. Conference Proceedings (pp. 141-151). Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans.


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